Python API for bob.bio.base¶

Generic functions¶

Functions dealing with resources¶

 bob.bio.base.load_resource(resource, keyword) Loads the given resource that is registered with the given keyword. bob.bio.base.read_config_file(filenames[, …]) Use this function to read the given configuration file. bob.bio.base.resource_keys(keyword[, …]) Reads and returns all resources that are registered with the given keyword. bob.bio.base.extensions([keywords, …]) Returns a list of packages that define extensions using the given keywords. bob.bio.base.valid_keywords Built-in immutable sequence.

Miscellaneous functions¶

 Returns a string containing the configuration information. Returns a function to compute a fusion strategy between different scores. bob.bio.base.selected_elements(list_of_elements) Returns a list of elements that are sub-selected from the given list (or the list itself, if its length is smaller). Returns a list of indices that will contain exactly the number of desired indices (or the number of total items in the list, if this is smaller).

Tools to run recognition experiments¶

Command line generation¶

 Creates an argparse.ArgumentParser object that includes the minimum set of command line options (which is not so few). bob.bio.base.tools.initialize(parsers[, …]) Parses the command line and arranges the arguments accordingly. Converts the given options to a string that can be executed in a terminal. Writes information about the current experimental setup into a file specified on command line. bob.bio.base.tools.FileSelector This class provides shortcuts for selecting different files for different stages of the verification process.

Controlling of elements¶

 Returns the groups, for which the files must be preprocessed, and features must be extracted and projected. bob.bio.base.tools.indices(list_to_split, …) This function returns the first and last index for the files for the current job ID.

Preprocessing¶

 bob.bio.base.tools.preprocess(preprocessor) Preprocesses the original data of the database with the given preprocessor. Reads the preprocessed data from file_names using the given preprocessor.

Feature Extraction¶

 Trains the feature extractor using preprocessed data of the 'world' group, if the feature extractor requires training. bob.bio.base.tools.extract(extractor, …[, …]) Extracts features from the preprocessed data using the given extractor. bob.bio.base.tools.read_features(file_names, …) Reads the extracted features from file_names using the given extractor.

Algorithm¶

 Trains the feature projector using extracted features of the 'world' group, if the algorithm requires projector training. bob.bio.base.tools.project(algorithm, extractor) Projects the features for all files of the database. bob.bio.base.tools.train_enroller(algorithm, …) Trains the model enroller using the extracted or projected features, depending on your setup of the algorithm. bob.bio.base.tools.enroll(algorithm, …[, …]) Enroll the models for the given groups, eventually for both models and T-Norm-models.

Scoring¶

 bob.bio.base.tools.compute_scores(algorithm, …) Computes the scores for the given groups. bob.bio.base.tools.concatenate(compute_zt_norm) Concatenates all results into one (or two) score files per group. bob.bio.base.tools.calibrate(compute_zt_norm) Calibrates the score files by learning a linear calibration from the dev files (first element of the groups) and executing the on all groups. Compute metrics from score files

 Opens the given score file for reading. bob.bio.base.score.load.scores(filename[, …]) Loads the scores from the given score file and yield its lines. bob.bio.base.score.load.split(filename[, …]) Loads the scores from the given score file and splits them into positives and negatives. bob.bio.base.score.load.cmc(filename[, ncolumns]) Loads scores to compute CMC curves. Loads a score set from a single file and yield its lines Loads a score set from a single file and splits the scores Loads scores to compute CMC curves from a file in four column format. Loads a score set from a single file and yield its lines Loads a score set from a single file and splits the scores Loads scores to compute CMC curves from a file in five column format.

Plotting¶

 bob.bio.base.script.figure.Cmc(ctx, scores, …) Handles the plotting of Cmc bob.bio.base.script.figure.Dir(ctx, scores, …) Handles the plotting of DIR curve bob.bio.base.script.figure.Hist(ctx, scores, …) Histograms for biometric scores

OpenBR conversions¶

 Writes the OpenBR matrix and mask files (version 2), given a score file. Writes the Bob score file in the desired format from OpenBR files.

Details¶

bob.bio.base.valid_keywords

Valid keywords, for which resources are defined, are ('database', 'preprocessor', 'extractor', 'algorithm', 'grid')

bob.bio.base.get_config()[source]

Returns a string containing the configuration information.

class bob.bio.base.Singleton(decorated)[source]

Bases: object

A non-thread-safe helper class to ease implementing singletons. This should be used as a decorator – not a metaclass – to the class that should be a singleton.

The decorated class can define one __init__ function that takes an arbitrary list of parameters.

To get the singleton instance, use the instance() method. Trying to use __call__ will result in a TypeError being raised.

Limitations:

• The decorated class cannot be inherited from.

• The documentation of the decorated class is replaced with the documentation of this class.

create(*args, **kwargs)[source]

Creates the singleton instance, by passing the given parameters to the class’ constructor.

instance()[source]

Returns the singleton instance. The function create() must have been called before.

bob.bio.base.check_file(filename, force, expected_file_size=1)[source]

Checks if the file with the given filename exists and has size greater or equal to expected_file_size. If the file is to small, or if the force option is set to True, the file is removed. This function returns True is the file exists (and has not been removed), otherwise False

bob.bio.base.close_compressed(filename, hdf5_file, compression_type='bz2', create_link=False)[source]

Closes the compressed hdf5_file that was opened with open_compressed. When the file was opened for writing (using the ‘w’ flag in open_compressed), the created HDF5 file is compressed into the given file name. To be able to read the data using the real tools, a link with the correct extension might is created, when create_link is set to True.

bob.bio.base.database_directories(strip=['dummy'], replacements=None, package_prefix='bob.bio.')[source]

Returns a dictionary of original directories for all registered databases.

bob.bio.base.extensions(keywords=valid_keywords, package_prefix='bob.bio.') → extensions[source]

Returns a list of packages that define extensions using the given keywords.

Parameters:

keywords[str]

A list of keywords to load entry points for. Defaults to all valid_keywords.

package_prefixstr

Package namespace, in which we search for entry points, e.g., bob.bio.

bob.bio.base.filter_missing_files(file_names, split_by_client=False, allow_missing_files=True)[source]

This function filters out files that do not exist, but only if allow_missing_files is set to True, otherwise the list of file_names is returned unaltered.

bob.bio.base.filter_none(data, split_by_client=False)[source]

This function filters out None values from the given list (or list of lists, when split_by_client is enabled).

bob.bio.base.is_argument_available(argument, method)[source]

Check if an argument (or keyword argument) is available in a method

bob.bio.base.argument

The name of the argument (or keyword argument).

Type

str

bob.bio.base.method

Pointer to the method

bob.bio.base.list_resources(keyword, strip=['dummy'], package_prefix='bob.bio.', verbose=False, packages=None)[source]

Returns a string containing a detailed list of resources that are registered with the given keyword.

bob.bio.base.load(file)[source]

Loads data from file. The given file might be an HDF5 file open for reading or a string.

bob.bio.base.load_compressed(filename, compression_type='bz2')[source]

Extracts the data to a temporary HDF5 file using HDF5 and reads its contents. Note that, though the file name is .hdf5, it contains compressed data! Accepted compression types are ‘gz’, ‘bz2’, ‘’

bob.bio.base.load_resource(resource, keyword, imports = ['bob.bio.base'], package_prefix='bob.bio.', preferred_package = None) → resource[source]

Loads the given resource that is registered with the given keyword. The resource can be:

1. a resource as defined in the setup.py

2. a configuration file

3. a string defining the construction of an object. If imports are required for the construction of this object, they can be given as list of strings.

Parameters:

resourcestr

Any string interpretable as a resource (see above).

keywordstr

A valid resource keyword, can be one of valid_keywords.

imports[str]

A list of strings defining which modules to import, when constructing new objects (option 3).

package_prefixstr

Package namespace, in which we search for entry points, e.g., bob.bio.

preferred_packagestr or None

When several resources with the same name are found in different packages (e.g., in different bob.bio or other packages), this specifies the preferred package to load the resource from. If not specified, the extension that is not from bob.bio is selected.

Returns:

resourceobject

The resulting resource object is returned, either read from file or resource, or created newly.

bob.bio.base.open_compressed(filename, open_flag='r', compression_type='bz2')[source]

Opens a compressed HDF5File with the given opening flags. For the ‘r’ flag, the given compressed file will be extracted to a local space. For ‘w’, an empty HDF5File is created. In any case, the opened HDF5File is returned, which needs to be closed using the close_compressed() function.

bob.bio.base.pretty_print(obj, kwargs)[source]

Returns a pretty-print of the parameters to the constructor of a class, which should be able to copy-paste on the command line to create the object (with few exceptions).

bob.bio.base.read_config_file(filenames, keyword = None) → config[source]

Use this function to read the given configuration file. If a keyword is specified, only the configuration according to this keyword is returned. Otherwise a dictionary of the configurations read from the configuration file is returned.

Parameters:

filenames[str]

A list (pontentially empty) of configuration files or resources to read running options from

keywordstr or None

If specified, only the contents of the variable with the given name is returned. If None, the whole configuration is returned (a local namespace)

Returns:

configobject or namespace

If keyword is specified, the object inside the configuration with the given name is returned. Otherwise, the whole configuration is returned (as a local namespace).

bob.bio.base.read_original_data(biofile, directory, extension)[source]

This function reads the original data using the given biofile instance. It simply calls load(directory, extension) from bob.bio.base.database.BioFile or one of its derivatives.

Parameters
• biofile (bob.bio.base.database.BioFile or one of its derivatives) – The file to read the original data.

• directory (str) – The base directory of the database.

• extension (str or None) – The extension of the original data. Might be None if the biofile itself has the extension stored.

Returns

Whatver biofile.load returns; usually a numpy.ndarray

Return type

object

bob.bio.base.resource_keys(keyword, exclude_packages=[], package_prefix='bob.bio.', strip=['dummy'])[source]

Reads and returns all resources that are registered with the given keyword. Entry points from the given exclude_packages are ignored.

bob.bio.base.save(data, file, compression=0)[source]

Saves the data to file using HDF5. The given file might be an HDF5 file open for writing, or a string. If the given data contains a save method, this method is called with the given HDF5 file. Otherwise the data is written to the HDF5 file using the given compression.

bob.bio.base.save_compressed(data, filename, compression_type='bz2', create_link=False)[source]

Saves the data to a temporary file using HDF5. Afterwards, the file is compressed using the given compression method and saved using the given file name. Note that, though the file name will be .hdf5, it will contain compressed data! Accepted compression types are ‘gz’, ‘bz2’, ‘’

bob.bio.base.score_fusion_strategy(strategy_name='average')[source]

Returns a function to compute a fusion strategy between different scores.

Different strategies are employed:

• 'average' : The averaged score is computed using the numpy.average() function.

• 'min' : The minimum score is computed using the min() function.

• 'max' : The maximum score is computed using the max() function.

• 'median' : The median score is computed using the numpy.median() function.

• None is also accepted, in which case None is returned.

bob.bio.base.selected_elements(list_of_elements, desired_number_of_elements=None)[source]

Returns a list of elements that are sub-selected from the given list (or the list itself, if its length is smaller). These elements are selected such that they are evenly spread over the whole list.

bob.bio.base.selected_indices(total_number_of_indices, desired_number_of_indices=None)[source]

Returns a list of indices that will contain exactly the number of desired indices (or the number of total items in the list, if this is smaller). These indices are selected such that they are evenly spread over the whole sequence.

bob.bio.base.vstack_features(reader, paths, same_size=False, allow_missing_files=False)[source]

Stacks all features in a memory efficient way.

Parameters
• reader (collections.Callable) – The function to load the features. The function should only take one argument being the path to the features. Use functools.partial to accommodate your reader to this format. The features returned by reader are expected to have the same numpy.dtype and the same shape except for their first dimension. First dimension is should correspond to the number of samples.

• paths (collections.Iterable) – An iterable of paths to iterate on. Whatever is inside path is given to reader so they do not need to be necessarily paths to actual files. If same_size is True, len(paths) must be valid.

• same_size (bool, optional) – If True, it assumes that arrays inside all the paths are the same shape. If you know the features are the same size in all paths, set this to True to improve the performance.

• allow_missing_files (bool, optional) – If True, it assumes that the items inside paths are actual files and ignores the ones that do not exist.

Returns

The read features with the shape (n_samples, *features_shape[1:]).

Return type

numpy.ndarray

Raises

ValueError – If both same_size and allow_missing_files are True.

Examples

This function in a simple way is equivalent to calling numpy.vstack(reader(p) for p in paths).

>>> import numpy
>>> from bob.bio.base import vstack_features
...     # in each file, there are 5 samples and features are 2 dimensional.
...     return numpy.arange(10).reshape(5,2)
>>> paths = ['path1', 'path2']
>>> all_features
array([[0, 1],
[2, 3],
[4, 5],
[6, 7],
[8, 9],
[0, 1],
[2, 3],
[4, 5],
[6, 7],
[8, 9]])
>>> all_features_with_more_memory = numpy.vstack(reader(p) for p in paths)
>>> numpy.allclose(all_features, all_features_with_more_memory)
True


You can allocate the array at once to improve the performance if you know that all features in paths have the same shape and you know the total number of the paths:

>>> vstack_features(reader, paths, same_size=True)
array([[0, 1],
[2, 3],
[4, 5],
[6, 7],
[8, 9],
[0, 1],
[2, 3],
[4, 5],
[6, 7],
[8, 9]])

class bob.bio.base.tools.FileSelector(decorated)[source]

This class provides shortcuts for selecting different files for different stages of the verification process.

It communicates with the database and provides lists of file names for all steps of the tool chain.

Parameters:

database

The database object that provides the list of files.

preprocessed_directorystr

The directory, where preprocessed data should be written to.

extractor_filestr

The filename, where the extractor should be written to (if any).

extracted_directorystr

The directory, where extracted features should be written to.

projector_filestr

The filename, where the projector should be written to (if any).

projected_directorystr

The directory, where projetced features should be written to (if required).

enroller_filestr

The filename, where the enroller should be written to (if required).

model_directories(str, str)

The directories, where models and t-norm models should be written to.

score_directories(str, str)

The directories, where score files for no-norm and ZT-norm should be written to.

zt_score_directories(str, str, str, str, str) or None

If given, specify the directories, where intermediate score files required to compute the ZT-norm should be written. The 5 directories are for 1: normal scores; 2: Z-scores; 3: T-scores; 4: ZT-scores; 5: ZT-samevalue scores.

default_extensionstr

The default extension of all intermediate files.

compressed_extensionstr

The extension for writing compressed score files. By default, no compression is performed.

class bob.bio.base.tools.GridSubmission(args, command_line_parameters, executable='verify.py', first_fake_job_id=0)[source]

Bases: object

submit(command, number_of_parallel_jobs=1, dependencies=[], name=None, **kwargs)[source]

Submit a grid job with the given command, which is added to the default command line. If the name is not given, it will take the second parameter of the command as name.

execute_local()[source]

Starts the local deamon and waits until it has finished.

bob.bio.base.tools.calibrate(compute_zt_norm, groups=['dev', 'eval'], prior=0.5, write_compressed=False)[source]

Calibrates the score files by learning a linear calibration from the dev files (first element of the groups) and executing the on all groups.

This function is intended to compute the calibration parameters on the scores of the development set using the bob.learn.linear.CGLogRegTrainer. Afterward, both the scores of the development and evaluation sets are calibrated and written to file. For ZT-norm scores, the calibration is performed independently, if enabled. The names of the calibrated score files that should be written are obtained from the bob.bio.base.tools.FileSelector.

Note

All NaN scores in the development set are silently ignored. This might raise an error, if all scores are NaN.

Parameters:

compute_zt_normbool

If set to True, also score files for ZT-norm are calibrated.

groupssome of ('dev', 'eval')

The list of groups, for which score files should be calibrated. The first of the given groups is used to train the logistic regression parameters, while the calibration is performed for all given groups.

priorfloat

Whatever bob.learn.linear.CGLogRegTrainer takes as a prior.

write_compressedbool

If enabled, calibrated score files are compressed as .tar.bz2 files.

bob.bio.base.tools.check_config_consumed(config)[source]
bob.bio.base.tools.command_line(cmdline) → str[source]

Converts the given options to a string that can be executed in a terminal. Parameters are enclosed into '...' quotes so that the command line can interpret them (e.g., if they contain spaces or special characters).

Parameters:

cmdline[str]

A list of command line options to be converted into a string.

Returns:

strstr

The command line string that can be copy-pasted into the terminal.

bob.bio.base.tools.command_line_config_group(parser, package_prefix='bob.bio.', exclude_resources_from=[])[source]

Generic configuration command lines that can be used by different toolchains, e.g., in bob.bio or bob.pad. :param parser: Parser to which this argument group should be added :param package_prefix: prefix of a package, in which these arguments should be use, e.g., in bob.bio. or bob.pad. :param exclude_resources_from: resources that should be excluded from the commandline :return: new config argument group added to the parser

bob.bio.base.tools.command_line_parser(description=__doc__, exclude_resources_from=[]) → parsers[source]

Creates an argparse.ArgumentParser object that includes the minimum set of command line options (which is not so few). The description can be overwritten, but has a (small) default.

Included in the parser, several groups are defined. Each group specifies a set of command line options. For the configurations, registered resources are listed, which can be limited by the exclude_resources_from list of extensions.

It returns a dictionary, containing the parser object itself (in the 'main' keyword), and a list of command line groups.

Parameters:

descriptionstr

The documentation of the script.

exclude_resources_from[str]

A list of extension packages, for which resources should not be listed.

Returns:

parsersdict

A dictionary of parser groups, with the main parser under the ‘main’ key. Feel free to add more options to any of the parser groups.

bob.bio.base.tools.command_line_skip_group(parsers, command_line_parameters, skips)[source]
bob.bio.base.tools.compute_scores(algorithm, extractor, compute_zt_norm, indices=None, groups=['dev', 'eval'], types=['A', 'B', 'C', 'D'], write_compressed=False, allow_missing_files=False, force=False)[source]

Computes the scores for the given groups.

This function computes all scores for the experiment, and writes them to files, one per model. When compute_zt_norm is enabled, scores are computed for all four matrices, i.e. A: normal scores; B: Z-norm scores; C: T-norm scores; D: ZT-norm scores and ZT-samevalue scores. By default, scores are computed for both groups 'dev' and 'eval'.

Parameters:

algorithmpy:class:bob.bio.base.algorithm.Algorithm or derived

The algorithm, used for enrolling model and writing them to file.

extractorpy:class:bob.bio.base.extractor.Extractor or derived

The extractor, used for extracting the features. The extractor is only used to read features, if the algorithm does not perform projection.

compute_zt_normbool

If set to True, also ZT-norm scores are computed.

indices(int, int) or None

If specified, scores are computed only for the models in the given index range range(begin, end). This is usually given, when parallel threads are executed.

Note

The probe files are not limited by the indices.

groupssome of ('dev', 'eval')

The list of groups, for which scores should be computed.

typessome of ['A', 'B', 'C', 'D']

A list of score types to be computed. If compute_zt_norm = False, only the 'A' scores are computed.

write_compressedbool

If enabled, score files are compressed as .tar.bz2 files.

allow_missing_filesbool

If set to True, model and probe files that are not found will produce NaN scores.

forcebool

If given, score files are regenerated, even if they already exist.

bob.bio.base.tools.concatenate(compute_zt_norm, groups=['dev', 'eval'], write_compressed=False, add_model_id=False)[source]

Concatenates all results into one (or two) score files per group.

Score files, which were generated per model, are concatenated into a single score file, which can be interpreter by bob.bio.base.score.load.split_four_column(). The score files are always re-computed, regardless if they exist or not.

Parameters:

compute_zt_normbool

If set to True, also score files for ZT-norm are concatenated.

groupssome of ('dev', 'eval')

The list of groups, for which score files should be concatenated.

write_compressedbool

If enabled, concatenated score files are compressed as .tar.bz2 files.

bob.bio.base.tools.create_configuration_file(parsers, args)[source]

This function writes an empty configuration file with all possible options.

bob.bio.base.tools.enroll(algorithm, extractor, compute_zt_norm, indices=None, groups=['dev', 'eval'], types=['N', 'T'], allow_missing_files=False, force=False)[source]
Enroll the models for the given groups, eventually for both models and T-Norm-models.

This function uses the extracted or projected features to compute the models, depending on your setup of the given algorithm.

The given algorithm is used to enroll all models required for the current experiment. It writes the models into the directories specified by the bob.bio.base.tools.FileSelector. By default, if target files already exist, they are not re-created.

The extractor is only used to load features in a coherent way.

Parameters:

algorithmpy:class:bob.bio.base.algorithm.Algorithm or derived

The algorithm, used for enrolling model and writing them to file.

extractorpy:class:bob.bio.base.extractor.Extractor or derived

The extractor, used for reading the extracted features, if the algorithm enrolls models from unprojected data.

compute_zt_normbool

If set to True and ‘T’ is part of the types, also T-norm models are extracted.

indices(int, int) or None

If specified, only the models for the given index range range(begin, end) should be enrolled. This is usually given, when parallel threads are executed.

groupssome of ('dev', 'eval')

The list of groups, for which models should be enrolled.

allow_missing_filesbool

If set to True, extracted or ptojected files that are not found are silently ignored. If none of the enroll files are found, no model file will be written.

forcebool

If given, files are regenerated, even if they already exist.

bob.bio.base.tools.extract(extractor, preprocessor, groups=None, indices=None, allow_missing_files=False, force=False)[source]

Extracts features from the preprocessed data using the given extractor.

The given extractor is used to extract all features required for the current experiment. It writes the extracted data into the directory specified by the bob.bio.base.tools.FileSelector. By default, if target files already exist, they are not re-created.

The preprocessor is only used to load the data in a coherent way.

Parameters:

extractorpy:class:bob.bio.base.extractor.Extractor or derived

The extractor, used for extracting and writing the features.

preprocessorpy:class:bob.bio.base.preprocessor.Preprocessor or derived

The preprocessor, used for reading the preprocessed data.

groupssome of ('world', 'dev', 'eval') or None

The list of groups, for which the data should be extracted.

indices(int, int) or None

If specified, only the features for the given index range range(begin, end) should be extracted. This is usually given, when parallel threads are executed.

allow_missing_filesbool

If set to True, preprocessed data files that are not found are silently ignored.

forcebool

If given, files are regenerated, even if they already exist.

bob.bio.base.tools.groups(args) → groups[source]

Returns the groups, for which the files must be preprocessed, and features must be extracted and projected. This function should be used in order to eliminate the training files (the 'world' group), when no training is required in this experiment.

Parameters:

argsnamespace

The interpreted command line arguments as returned by the initialize() function.

Returns:

groups[str]

A list of groups, for which data needs to be treated.

bob.bio.base.tools.indices(list_to_split, number_of_parallel_jobs, task_id=None)[source]

This function returns the first and last index for the files for the current job ID. If no job id is set (e.g., because a sub-job is executed locally), it simply returns all indices.

bob.bio.base.tools.initialize(parsers, command_line_parameters = None, skips = []) → args[source]

Parses the command line and arranges the arguments accordingly. Afterward, it loads the resources for the database, preprocessor, extractor, algorithm and grid (if specified), and stores the results into the returned args.

This function also initializes the FileSelector instance by arranging the directories and files according to the command line parameters.

If the skips are given, an ‘–execute-only’ parameter is added to the parser, according skips are selected.

Parameters:

parsersdict

The dictionary of command line parsers, as returned from command_line_parser(). Additional arguments might have been added.

command_line_parameters[str] or None

The command line parameters that should be interpreted. By default, the parameters specified by the user on command line are considered.

skips[str]

A list of possible --skip-... options to be added and evaluated automatically.

Returns:

argsnamespace

A namespace of arguments as read from the command line.

Note

The database, preprocessor, extractor, algorithm and grid (if specified) are actual instances of the according classes.

bob.bio.base.tools.is_idiap()[source]
bob.bio.base.tools.parse_config_file(parsers, args, args_dictionary, keywords, skips)[source]
bob.bio.base.tools.preprocess(preprocessor, groups=None, indices=None, allow_missing_files=False, force=False)[source]

Preprocesses the original data of the database with the given preprocessor.

The given preprocessor is used to preprocess all data required for the current experiment. It writes the preprocessed data into the directory specified by the bob.bio.base.tools.FileSelector. By default, if target files already exist, they are not re-created.

Parameters:

preprocessorpy:class:bob.bio.base.preprocessor.Preprocessor or derived

The preprocessor, which should be applied to all data.

groupssome of ('world', 'dev', 'eval') or None

The list of groups, for which the data should be preprocessed.

indices(int, int) or None

If specified, only the data for the given index range range(begin, end) should be preprocessed. This is usually given, when parallel threads are executed.

allow_missing_filesbool

If set to True, files for which the preprocessor returns None are silently ignored.

forcebool

If given, files are regenerated, even if they already exist.

bob.bio.base.tools.project(algorithm, extractor, groups=None, indices=None, allow_missing_files=False, force=False)[source]

Projects the features for all files of the database.

The given algorithm is used to project all features required for the current experiment. It writes the projected data into the directory specified by the bob.bio.base.tools.FileSelector. By default, if target files already exist, they are not re-created.

The extractor is only used to load the data in a coherent way.

Parameters:

algorithmpy:class:bob.bio.base.algorithm.Algorithm or derived

The algorithm, used for projecting features and writing them to file.

extractorpy:class:bob.bio.base.extractor.Extractor or derived

The extractor, used for reading the extracted features, which should be projected.

groupssome of ('world', 'dev', 'eval') or None

The list of groups, for which the data should be projected.

indices(int, int) or None

If specified, only the features for the given index range range(begin, end) should be projected. This is usually given, when parallel threads are executed.

allow_missing_filesbool

If set to True, extracted files that are not found are silently ignored.

forcebool

If given, files are regenerated, even if they already exist.

bob.bio.base.tools.read_features(file_names, extractor, split_by_client = False) → extracted[source]

Reads the extracted features from file_names using the given extractor. If split_by_client is set to True, it is assumed that the file_names are already sorted by client.

Parameters:

file_names[str] or [[str]]

A list of names of files to be read. If split_by_client = True, file names are supposed to be split into groups.

extractorpy:class:bob.bio.base.extractor.Extractor or derived

The extractor, used for reading the extracted features.

split_by_clientbool

Indicates if the given file_names are split into groups.

allow_missing_filesbool

If set to True, extracted files that are not found are silently ignored.

Returns:

extracted[object] or [[object]]

The list of extracted features, in the same order as in the file_names.

bob.bio.base.tools.read_preprocessed_data(file_names, preprocessor, split_by_client = False) → preprocessed[source]

Reads the preprocessed data from file_names using the given preprocessor. If split_by_client is set to True, it is assumed that the file_names are already sorted by client.

Parameters:

file_names[str] or [[str]]

A list of names of files to be read. If split_by_client = True, file names are supposed to be split into groups.

preprocessorpy:class:bob.bio.base.preprocessor.Preprocessor or derived

The preprocessor, which can read the preprocessed data.

split_by_clientbool

Indicates if the given file_names are split into groups.

allow_missing_filesbool

If set to True, preprocessed data files that are not found are silently ignored.

Returns:

preprocessed[object] or [[object]]

The list of preprocessed data, in the same order as in the file_names.

bob.bio.base.tools.set_extra_flags(args)[source]
bob.bio.base.tools.set_required_common_optional_arguments(required=[], common=[], optional=[])[source]
bob.bio.base.tools.take_from_config_or_command_line(args, config, keyword, default, required=True, is_resource=True)[source]
bob.bio.base.tools.train_enroller(algorithm, extractor, allow_missing_files=False, force=False)[source]

Trains the model enroller using the extracted or projected features, depending on your setup of the algorithm.

This function should only be called, when the algorithm actually requires enroller training. The enroller of the given algorithm is trained using extracted or projected features. It writes the enroller to the file specified by the bob.bio.base.tools.FileSelector. By default, if the target file already exist, it is not re-created.

Parameters:

algorithmpy:class:bob.bio.base.algorithm.Algorithm or derived

The algorithm, in which the enroller should be trained. It is assured that the projector file is read (if required) before the enroller training is started.

extractorpy:class:bob.bio.base.extractor.Extractor or derived

The extractor, used for reading the training data, if unprojected features are used for enroller training.

allow_missing_filesbool

If set to True, extracted files that are not found are silently ignored during training.

forcebool

If given, the enroller file is regenerated, even if it already exists.

bob.bio.base.tools.train_extractor(extractor, preprocessor, allow_missing_files=False, force=False)[source]

Trains the feature extractor using preprocessed data of the 'world' group, if the feature extractor requires training.

This function should only be called, when the extractor actually requires training. The given extractor is trained using preprocessed data. It writes the extractor to the file specified by the bob.bio.base.tools.FileSelector. By default, if the target file already exist, it is not re-created.

Parameters:

extractorpy:class:bob.bio.base.extractor.Extractor or derived

The extractor to be trained.

preprocessorpy:class:bob.bio.base.preprocessor.Preprocessor or derived

The preprocessor, used for reading the preprocessed data.

allow_missing_filesbool

If set to True, preprocessed data files that are not found are silently ignored during training.

forcebool

If given, the extractor file is regenerated, even if it already exists.

bob.bio.base.tools.train_projector(algorithm, extractor, allow_missing_files=False, force=False)[source]

Trains the feature projector using extracted features of the 'world' group, if the algorithm requires projector training.

This function should only be called, when the algorithm actually requires projector training. The projector of the given algorithm is trained using extracted features. It writes the projector to the file specified by the bob.bio.base.tools.FileSelector. By default, if the target file already exist, it is not re-created.

Parameters:

algorithmpy:class:bob.bio.base.algorithm.Algorithm or derived

The algorithm, in which the projector should be trained.

extractorpy:class:bob.bio.base.extractor.Extractor or derived

The extractor, used for reading the training data.

allow_missing_filesbool

If set to True, extracted files that are not found are silently ignored during training.

forcebool

If given, the projector file is regenerated, even if it already exists.

bob.bio.base.tools.write_info(args, command_line_parameters, executable)[source]

Writes information about the current experimental setup into a file specified on command line.

Parameters:

argsnamespace

The interpreted command line arguments as returned by the initialize() function.

command_line_parameters[str] or None

The command line parameters that have been interpreted. If None, the parameters specified by the user on command line are considered.

executablestr

The name of the executable (such as './bin/verify.py') that is used to run the experiments.

bob.bio.base.tools.zt_norm(groups=['dev', 'eval'], write_compressed=False, allow_missing_files=False)[source]

Computes ZT-Norm using the previously generated A, B, C, D and D-samevalue matrix files.

This function computes the ZT-norm scores for all model ids for all desired groups and writes them into files defined by the bob.bio.base.tools.FileSelector. It loads the A, B, C, D and D-samevalue matrix files that need to be computed beforehand.

Parameters:

groupssome of ('dev', 'eval')

The list of groups, for which ZT-norm should be applied.

write_compressedbool

If enabled, score files are compressed as .tar.bz2 files.

allow_missing_filesbool

Currently, this option is only provided for completeness. NaN scores are not yet handled correctly.

A set of utilities to load score files with different formats.

bob.bio.base.score.load.open_file(filename, mode='rt')[source]

Opens the given score file for reading.

Score files might be raw text files, or a tar-file including a single score file inside.

Parameters

filename (str, file-like) – The name of the score file to open, or a file-like object open for reading. If a file name is given, the according file might be a raw text file or a (compressed) tar file containing a raw text file.

Returns

A read-only file-like object as it would be returned by open().

Return type

file-like

bob.bio.base.score.load.four_column(filename)[source]

Loads a score set from a single file and yield its lines

Loads a score set from a single file and yield its lines (to avoid loading the score file at once into memory). This function verifies that all fields are correctly placed and contain valid fields. The score file must contain the following information in each line:

claimed_id real_id test_label score

Parameters

filename (str, file-like) – The file object that will be opened with open_file() containing the scores.

Yields

str – The claimed identity – the client name of the model that was used in the comparison

str: The real identity – the client name of the probe that was used in the comparison

str: A label of the probe – usually the probe file name, or the probe id

float: The result of the comparison of the model and the probe

bob.bio.base.score.load.split_four_column(filename)[source]

Loads a score set from a single file and splits the scores

Loads a score set from a single file and splits the scores between negatives and positives. The score file has to respect the 4 column format as defined in the method four_column().

This method avoids loading and allocating memory for the strings present in the file. We only keep the scores.

Parameters

filename (str, file-like) – The file object that will be opened with open_file() containing the scores.

Returns

negatives, 1D float array containing the list of scores, for which

the claimed_id and the real_id are different (see four_column())

array: positives, 1D float array containing the list of scores, for which

the claimed_id and the real_id are identical (see four_column())

Return type

array

bob.bio.base.score.load.cmc_four_column(filename)[source]

Loads scores to compute CMC curves from a file in four column format.

The four column file needs to be in the same format as described in four_column(), and the test_label (column 3) has to contain the test/probe file name or a probe id.

This function returns a list of tuples. For each probe file, the tuple consists of a list of negative scores and a list of positive scores. Usually, the list of positive scores should contain only one element, but more are allowed. The result of this function can directly be passed to, e.g., the bob.measure.cmc() function.

Parameters

filename (str, file-like) – The file object that will be opened with open_file() containing the scores.

Returns

A list of tuples, where each tuple contains the negative and positive scores for one probe of the database. Both negatives and positives can be either an 1D numpy.ndarray of type float, or None.

Return type

list

bob.bio.base.score.load.five_column(filename)[source]

Loads a score set from a single file and yield its lines

Loads a score set from a single file and yield its lines (to avoid loading the score file at once into memory). This function verifies that all fields are correctly placed and contain valid fields. The score file must contain the following information in each line:

claimed_id model_label real_id test_label score

Parameters

filename (str, file-like) – The file object that will be opened with open_file() containing the scores.

Yields

str – The claimed identity – the client name of the model that was used in the comparison

str: A label for the model – usually the model file name, or the model id

str: The real identity – the client name of the probe that was used in the comparison

str: A label of the probe – usually the probe file name, or the probe id

float: The result of the comparison of the model and the probe

bob.bio.base.score.load.split_five_column(filename)[source]

Loads a score set from a single file and splits the scores

Loads a score set from a single file in five column format and splits the scores between negatives and positives. The score file has to respect the 5 column format as defined in the method five_column().

This method avoids loading and allocating memory for the strings present in the file. We only keep the scores.

Parameters

filename (str, file-like) – The file object that will be opened with open_file() containing the scores.

Returns

negatives, 1D float array containing the list of scores, for which

the claimed_id and the real_id are different (see four_column())

array: positives, 1D float array containing the list of scores, for which

the claimed_id and the real_id are identical (see four_column())

Return type

array

bob.bio.base.score.load.cmc_five_column(filename)[source]

Loads scores to compute CMC curves from a file in five column format.

The five column file needs to be in the same format as described in five_column(), and the test_label (column 4) has to contain the test/probe file name or a probe id.

This function returns a list of tuples. For each probe file, the tuple consists of a list of negative scores and a list of positive scores. Usually, the list of positive scores should contain only one element, but more are allowed. The result of this function can directly be passed to, e.g., the bob.measure.cmc() function.

Parameters

filename (str, file-like) – The file object that will be opened with open_file() containing the scores.

Returns

A list of tuples, where each tuple contains the negative and positive scores for one probe of the database.

Return type

list

bob.bio.base.score.load.scores(filename, ncolumns=None) → tuple[source]

Loads the scores from the given score file and yield its lines. Depending on the score file format, four or five elements are yielded, see bob.bio.base.score.load.four_column() and bob.bio.base.score.load.five_column() for details.

Parameters:

filename: str, file-like:

The file object that will be opened with open_file() containing the scores.

ncolumns: any

ignored

Yields:

tuple:
bob.bio.base.score.load.split(filename, ncolumns=None, sort=False)[source]

Loads the scores from the given score file and splits them into positives and negatives. Depending on the score file format, it calls see bob.bio.base.score.load.split_four_column() and bob.bio.base.score.load.split_five_column() for details.

Parameters
• filename (str) – The path to the score file.

• ncolumns (int or None) – If specified to be 4 or 5, the score file will be assumed to be in the given format. If not specified, the score file format will be estimated automatically

• sort (bool, optional) – If True, will return sorted negatives and positives

Returns

bob.bio.base.score.load.cmc(filename, ncolumns=None) → list[source]

Loads scores to compute CMC curves.

Depending on the score file format, it calls see bob.bio.base.score.load.cmc_four_column() and :py:func:bob.bio.base.score.load.cmc_five_column for details.

Parameters
• filename (str or file-like) – The file object that will be opened with open_file() containing the scores.

• ncolumns – (int, Optional): If specified to be 4 or 5, the score file will be assumed to be in the given format. If not specified, the score file format will be estimated automatically

Returns:

list: [(neg,pos)] A list of tuples, where each tuple contains the negative and positive scores for one probe of the database.

bob.bio.base.score.load.load_score(filename, ncolumns=None, minimal=False, **kwargs)[source]

Load scores using numpy.loadtxt and return the data as a numpy array.

Parameters
Returns

An array which contains not only the actual scores but also the claimed_id, real_id, test_label and ['model_label']

Return type

array

bob.bio.base.score.load.load_files(filenames, func_load)[source]

Load a list of score files and return a list of tuples of (neg, pos)

Parameters
• filenames (list) – list of file paths

Returns

• :any:list ([(neg,pos)] A list of tuples, where each tuple contains the)

• negative and positive sceach system/probee.

bob.bio.base.score.load.get_negatives_positives(score_lines)[source]

Take the output of load_score and return negatives and positives. This function aims to replace split_four_column and split_five_column but takes a different input. It’s up to you to use which one.

bob.bio.base.score.load.get_negatives_positives_from_file(filename, **kwargs)[source]

Loads the scores first efficiently and then calls get_negatives_positives

bob.bio.base.score.load.get_negatives_positives_all(score_lines_list)[source]

Take a list of outputs of load_score and return stacked negatives and positives.

bob.bio.base.score.load.get_all_scores(score_lines_list)[source]

Take a list of outputs of load_score and return stacked scores

bob.bio.base.score.load.dump_score(filename, score_lines)[source]

Dump scores that were loaded using load_score() The number of columns is automatically detected.

This file includes functionality to convert between Bob’s four column or five column score files and the Matrix files used in OpenBR.

bob.bio.base.score.openbr.write_matrix(score_file, matrix_file, mask_file, model_names=None, probe_names=None, score_file_format='4column', gallery_file_name='unknown-gallery.lst', probe_file_name='unknown-probe.lst', search=None)[source]

Writes the OpenBR matrix and mask files (version 2), given a score file.

If gallery and probe names are provided, the matrices in both files will be sorted by gallery and probe names. Otherwise, the order will be the same as given in the score file.

If search is given (as an integer), the resulting matrix files will be in the search format, keeping the given number of gallery scores with the highest values for each probe.

Warning

When provided with a 4-column score file, this function will work only, if there is only a single model id for each client.

Parameters
• score_file (str) – The 4 or 5 column style score file written by bob.

• matrix_file (str) – The OpenBR matrix file that should be written. Usually, the file name extension is .mtx

• mask_file (str) – The OpenBR mask file that should be written. The mask file defines, which values are positives, negatives or to be ignored. Usually, the file name extension is .mask

• model_names (str, optional) –

If given, the matrix will be written in the same order as the given model names. The model names must be identical with the second column in the 5-column score_file.

Note

If the score file is in four column format, the model_names must be the client ids stored in the first column. In this case, there might be only a single model per client

Only the scores of the given models will be considered.

• probe_names (list, optional) – A list of strings. If given, the matrix will be written in the same order as the given probe names (the path of the probe). The probe names are identical to the third column of the 4-column (or the fourth column of the 5-column) score_file. Only the scores of the given probe names will be considered in this case.

• score_file_format (str, optional) – One of ('4column', '5column'). The format, in which the score_file is; defaults to '4column'

• gallery_file_name (str, optional) – The name of the gallery file that will be written in the header of the OpenBR files.

• probe_file_name (str, optional) – The name of the probe file that will be written in the header of the OpenBR files.

• search (int, optional) – If given, the scores will be sorted per probe, keeping the specified number of highest scores. If the given number is higher than the models, NaN values will be added, and the mask will contain 0x00 values.

bob.bio.base.score.openbr.write_score_file(matrix_file, mask_file, score_file, models_ids=None, probes_ids=None, model_names=None, probe_names=None, score_file_format='4column', replace_nan=None)[source]

Writes the Bob score file in the desired format from OpenBR files.

Writes a Bob score file in the desired format (four or five column), given the OpenBR matrix and mask files.

In principle, the score file can be written based on the matrix and mask files, and the format suffice the requirements to compute CMC curves. However, the contents of the score files can be adapted. If given, the models_ids and probes_ids define the client ids of model and probe, and they have to be in the same order as used to compute the OpenBR matrix. The model_names and probe_names define the paths of model and probe, and they should be in the same order as the ids.

In rare cases, the OpenBR matrix contains NaN values, which Bob’s score files cannot handle. You can use the replace_nan parameter to decide, what to do with these values. By default (None), these values are ignored, i.e., not written into the score file. This is, what OpenBR is doing as well. However, you can also set replace_nan to any value, which will be written instead of the NaN values.

Parameters
• matrix_file (str) – The OpenBR matrix file that should be read. Usually, the file name extension is .mtx

• mask_file (str) – The OpenBR mask file that should be read. Usually, the file name extension is .mask

• score_file (str) – Path to the 4 or 5 column style score file that should be written.

• models_ids (list, optional) – A list of strings with the client ids of the models that will be written in the first column of the score file. If given, the size must be identical to the number of models (gallery templates) in the OpenBR files. If not given, client ids of the model will be identical to the gallery index in the matrix file.

• probes_ids (list, optional) – A list of strings with the client ids of the probes that will be written in the second/third column of the four/five column score file. If given, the size must be identical to the number of probe templates in the OpenBR files. It will be checked that the OpenBR mask fits to the model/probe client ids. If not given, the probe ids will be estimated automatically, i.e., to fit the OpenBR matrix.

• model_names (list, optional) –

A list of strings with the model path written in the second column of the five column score file. If not given, the model index in the OpenBR file will be used.

Note

This entry is ignored in the four column score file format.

• probe_names (list, optional) – A list of probe path to be written in the third/fourth column in the four/five column score file. If given, the size must be identical to the number of probe templates in the OpenBR files. If not given, the probe index in the OpenBR file will be used.

• score_file_format (str, optional) – One of ('4column', '5column'). The format, in which the score_file is; defaults to '4column'

• replace_nan (float, optional) – If NaN values are encountered in the OpenBR matrix (which are not ignored due to the mask being non-NULL), this value will be written instead. If None, the values will not be written in the score file at all.

Plots and measures for bob.bio.base

class bob.bio.base.script.figure.Roc(ctx, scores, evaluation, func_load)[source]
class bob.bio.base.script.figure.Det(ctx, scores, evaluation, func_load)[source]
class bob.bio.base.script.figure.Cmc(ctx, scores, evaluation, func_load)[source]

Handles the plotting of Cmc

compute(idx, input_scores, input_names)[source]

Plot CMC for dev and eval data using bob.measure.plot.cmc()

class bob.bio.base.script.figure.Dir(ctx, scores, evaluation, func_load)[source]

Handles the plotting of DIR curve

compute(idx, input_scores, input_names)[source]

Plot DIR for dev and eval data using bob.measure.plot.detection_identification_curve()

class bob.bio.base.script.figure.Metrics(ctx, scores, evaluation, func_load, names=('Failure to Acquire', 'False Match Rate', 'False Non Match Rate', 'False Accept Rate', 'False Reject Rate', 'Half Total Error Rate'))[source]

Compute metrics from score files

init_process()[source]

Called in MeasureBase().run before iterating through the different systems. Should reimplemented in derived classes

compute(idx, input_scores, input_names)[source]

Compute metrics for the given criteria

class bob.bio.base.script.figure.MultiMetrics(ctx, scores, evaluation, func_load)[source]

Compute metrics from score files

class bob.bio.base.script.figure.Hist(ctx, scores, evaluation, func_load, nhist_per_system=2)[source]

Histograms for biometric scores

Click commands for bob.bio.base

bob.bio.base.script.commands.rank_option(**kwargs)[source]

Get option for rank parameter

Generate random scores.

bob.bio.base.script.gen.gen_score_distr(mean_neg, mean_pos, sigma_neg=10, sigma_pos=10, n_neg=5000, n_pos=5000, seed=0)[source]

Generate scores from normal distributions

Parameters
• mean_neg (float) – Mean for negative scores

• mean_pos (float) – Mean for positive scores

• sigma_neg (float) – STDev for negative scores

• sigma_pos (float) – STDev for positive scores

• n_pos (int) – The number of positive scores generated

• n_neg (int) – The number of negative scores generated

• seed (int) – A value to initialize the Random Number generator. Giving the same value (or not specifying ‘seed’) on two different calls will generate the same lists of scores.

Returns

bob.bio.base.script.gen.write_scores_to_file(neg, pos, filename, n_subjects=5, n_probes_per_subject=5, n_unknown_subjects=0, neg_unknown=None, five_col=False)[source]

Writes score distributions

Parameters
• neg (numpy.ndarray) – Scores for negative samples.

• pos (numpy.ndarray) – Scores for positive samples.

• filename (str) – The path to write the score to.

• n_subjects (int) – Number of different subjects

• n_probes_per_subject (int) – Number of different samples used as probe for each subject

• n_unknown_subjects (int) – The number of unknown (no registered model) subjects

• neg_unknown (None or list) – The of unknown subjects scores

• five_col (bool) – If 5-colum format, else 4-column